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  The Present Participle (gerundio): Forms and Uses  
  The present participle, often called the gerundio, corresponds to a considerable extent to English ___ing. However, there are cases in which Spanish and English differ in usage, and this must be carefully studied. Below the forms, uses and non-uses of the present participle are presented.  
  FORMS OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE (Quiz)  
  REGULAR VERBS  
 
  • -ar verbs: stem plus -ando
    • habl|arhablando; trabaj|ar→trabajando
  • -er / -ir verbs: stem plus -iendo
    • aprend|eraprendiendo; recib|irrecibiendo
 
  STEM CHANGES, OTHER SPELLING CHANGES, IRREGULAR VERBS  
 
  • Stem changes e→i, o→u in -ir verbs:
    • preferirprefiriendo; servirsirviendo; dormirdurmiendo
  • Spelling change i→y in -aer, -eer, -uir verbs; oír
    • caercayendo; leerleyendo; construirconstruyendo
  • Deletion of i in -eír verbs; verbs with stem-final ñ, ll :
    • reír→*riiendo→riendo; reñir→*riñiendo→riñendo; bullir→*bulliendo→bullendo
  • Irregular form:
    • poderpudiendo
 
  USES OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE  
 
  • With an auxiliary verb form
    • After estar to form progressive tenses:
      • Estamos quitando la mesa.
        • We're clearing the table.
      • Jorge me está escuchando.
        • Jorge is listening to me.
      • Los niños estaban durmiendo cuando yo llegué.
        • The kids were sleeping when I arrived.
      • Mañana a esta hora estaremos almorzando con Juana.
        • Tomorrow at this time we'll be having lunch with Juana.
    • With verbs of motion to describe ongoing or intermittent events:
      • Vamos conociéndonos.
        • We're getting to know each other.
      • La chica entró en el cuarto riendo.
        • The girl came into the room laughing.
      • Ese tipo anda molestando a todos.
        • That guy goes around bothering everybody.
      • Cuando vio al policía, el ladrón salió corriendo.
        • When he saw the police officer, the thief took off running.
    • After acabar to mean wind up ____ing:
      • Acabamos ganando mil dólares.
        • We wound up winning a thousand dollars.
    • After verbs of perception:
      • Vi a los obreros trabajando en la casa.
        • We saw the laborers working on the house.
      • ¿Oíste a tu hermano cantando?
        • Did you hear your brother singing?
    • After seguir or continuar to mean keep on ___ing:
      • Siga Ud. estudiando la lección.
        • Keep on studying the lesson.
    • After llevar + time expression to indicate time lapsed since the onset of an event (more):
      • Llevo dos años viviendo en San Diego.
        • I've been living in San Diego for two years.
  • Without an auxiliary verb (by ___ing); since; inasmuch as ___ / in order to _____.
    • Terminamos el proyecto trabajando día y noche.
      • We finished the project by working day and night.
    • Viendo que no había nada más que hacer, salí para casa.
      • Seeing that there was no more to do, I left for home.
    • Siendo eso la situación, no hay más remedio.
      • That being the situation, it can't be helped.
    • El jefe nos escribió un e-mail explicando su decisión.
      • The boss wrote us an e-mail explaining his decision.
 
  CONTEXTS IN WHICH THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE IS NOT USED  
 
  • The participle is not used in the following contexts, in which English ___ing is used:
    • To express future intent (Spanish present indicative used):
      • Salimos (vamos a salir) mañana a las ocho.
        • We're leaving (going to leave) tomorrow at eight.
    • After a preposition (Spanish infinitive used):
      • No salgas sin apagar la radio.
        • Don't leave without turning off the radio.
    • As a noun (Spanish infinitive used):
      • Ver es creer.
        • Seeing is believing.
    • As an adjective (Spanish uses an adjective clause* or other adjective form):
      • Los estudiantes *que estudian una lengua extranjera van al laboratorio los martes.
        • Students studying a foreign language go to the lab on Tuesdays.
    • Some Spanish equivalents of ___ing forms:
      • interesante (interesting); anglohablante; (English-speaking); divertido (amusing); crema de afeitar (shaving cream); coche comedor (dining car)
 
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