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Forms and Uses of the Perfect Tenses

 
  present perfect indicative pluperfect indicative future perfect
  conditional perfect present perfect subjunctive pluperfect subjunctive
  INTRODUCTION: WHAT ARE THE PERFECT TENSES?
 
  • Perfect tenses are compound (two-word) verb conjugations that describe an event as completed as of a certain point in the present past or future.
    • Spanish perfect tenses correspond fairly consistently to English (I, you..., etc.) has/have talked, had talked, will have talked, would have talked, etc.
  • They consist of a conjugated form of the auxiliary verb haber an invariable past participle (always ending in -o).
  • Their uses and meanings correspond largely with their counterparts in English; see examples below.
  • There are four non-subjunctive perfect tense conjugations, and two in the subjunctive.
    • Click on a link above to view the conjugation of a particular perfect tense.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
  PERFECT TENSES: THE PRESENT PERFECT (INDICATIVE) (" has/have _____ed") (top of page)
  Events completed as of the present, often referring to completion or occurrence within the present day, month, year, etc., or ever (in one's lifetime, in history, etc.)
  Conjugation: Present of haber + pp* Examples
  he
has
he
hemos
habéis
han
+ past participle*
  • He probado ese plato una vez.
    • I've tried that dish once.
  • ¿Has estado alguna vez en París?
    • Have you ever been in Paris?
  • Vimos a Tomás ayer, pero no lo hemos visto hoy.
    • We saw Tomás yesterday, but we haven't seen him today.
  • Nunca ha ocurrido un accidente así.
    • An accident like that has never happened.
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 
  PERFECT TENSES: PLUPERFECT (INDICATIVE) (" had _____ed") (top of page)  
  Events that were completed as of a point in past.
  Conjugation: Imperfect of haber + pp* Examples  
  había
habías
había
habíamos
habíamos
habíais
habían
+ past participle*
  • Antes del mes pasado, yo nunca había comido en ese restaurante.
    • Before last month, I had never eaten in that restaurant.
  • Fuimos al estadio para ver un partido ayer. Antes, sólo habíamos visto los partidos en la tele.
    • We went to the stadium to see a game yesterday. Previously, we had only seen the games on TV.
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  PERFECT TENSES: THE FUTURE PERFECT (" will have _____ed") (top of page)  
  Events that will be completed as of a point in the future.  
  Conjugation: Future of haber + pp* Examples  
  habré
habrás
habrá
habremos
babréis
habrán
+ past participle*
  • No puedo jugar al golf con Uds. mañana, porque ha habré salido para Chicago.
    • I can't play golf with you tomorrow, because I will have already left for Chicago.
  • En dos o tres años, todos habrán adquirido teléfonos, estéreos y computadoras portátiles.
    • In two or three years, everyone will have acquired portable telephones, stereos and computers.
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  PERFECT TENSES: CONDITIONAL PERFECT (" would have _____ed") (top of page)  
  Events that would have been completed under certain stated or implied circumstances.  
  Conjugation: Future of haber + pp* Examples  
  habría
habrías
habría
habríamos
habríais
habrían 
+ past participle*
  • Yo en una situación así habría hecho lo mismo que tú.
    • In a situation like that, I would have done the same as you.
  • ¿Qué habríamos comido si tú no hubieras traído la comida?
    • What would we have eaten if you hadn't brought the food?
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  PERFECT TENSES: PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (" ...that one has / have _____ed") (top of page)  
  Used in subordinate clause in which subjunctive is required and subordinate verb event precedes the (present tense) main verb event.  
  Conjugation: Future of haber + pp* Examples  
  haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan 
+ past participle*
  • Dudo que Mariana haya hecho lo que le pedí.
    • I doubt that Mariana has done what I asked of her.
  • Es bueno que nadie haya salido.
    • It's good that nobody has left.
  • Buscamos personas que ya hayan tomado el examen.
    • We're looking for persons who have already taken the exam.
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  PERFECT TENSES: PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (" ...that one had have _____ed") (top of page)  
  Used in subordinate clause in which subjunctive is required and subordinate verb event precedes the (past tense) main verb event.  
  Conjugation: Future of haber + pp* Examples  
  hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran 
+ past participle*
  • Prefería ir al cine con alguien que no hubiera visto la película.
    • I preferred to go the movies with someone who had not (already) seen the film.
  • Esperaba que tu hubieras traído un postre o algo.
    • I was hoping that you had brought a dessert or somthing.
 
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